Flag of the American puppet kingdom of Madawaska, located on the Maine/Canada border in occupied Canadian territory, soon to be featured in the story.
Guys, this was originally illustrated and formatted, but I just copied and pasted it here lazily. To read the story the right way, go here: (EDIT: LOOK AT FIRST COMMENT!)
American King: Take Two
“Surely oppression maketh a wise man mad”
Massacre of the Tories by the Sons of Liberty by Alonzo Chappel
To fully understand the events of the Great Revolution, we must go back to earlier decades of the Glorious Century, the 1700’s. Following France’s defeat in the Seven Years’ War (1756-63), and the rise of Britain as the supreme world power, Louis XV, great-grandson of the Sun King, was forced to sign away most of France’s New World colonies. This left Britain extremely wealthy, but still, it had war debts, as it also fought alongside Frederick II, the Great, against the Austrians and French in mainland Europe. King George III (who succeeded his grandfather George II in 1760) was the latest British sovereign of the House of Hanover, and he needed tax money, and the American colonies were a great source of income. After all, the colonists had had the protection of the mighty British army and navy during the Seven Years’ War, so why should not they pay for it? The King could not run the government for free, after all. Even after the Seven Years’, as late as 1766, the Redcoats were fighting Pontiac’s Rebellion against those Indian tribes formerly allied to the French. On October 7th, 1763, George set up the Proclamation Line to protect those "infernal colonists," and they were not even grateful! Taxes, taxes, and, above all, more taxes, were required to pay for the New World shenanigans and the expanding empire. The Parliament soon issued the Sugar and Currency Acts (1764), taking away the colonies’ rights to print money, and claiming, "It is expedient that new provisions and regulations should be established for improving the revenue of this Kingdom … and … it is just and necessary that a revenue should be raised … for defraying the expenses of defending, protecting, and securing the same." Shockingly, these acts proved wildly unpopular and the colonists rioted in the streets. Late to the party was the Stamp Act (1765), which infuriated most Americans. Riots and violence broke out, which the British mercilessly crushed. Virginia’s Burgesses claimed the motherland could not tax Virginians under British law; "only Virginians can tax Virginians." The final kick in the crotch came with the enactment of the Quartering Act, allowing roving mobs of British soldiers and sailors to "loot, pillage, and make themselves at home on private property."
George III, By the Grace of God, of Great Britain, France and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, Prince-Elector of Hanover, Duke of Brunswick
The Parliament’s refusal to repeal the Stamp and Quartering Acts resulted in the New York Rebellion of 1766, when New Yorkers took up arms against the British garrisons. After the quickly-but-bloodily-won victory by the British government, New York’s government was suspended and numerous arrests ensued, including that of revolutionary Seven Years’ War veteran Captain James DeLancey, a member of the radical Sons of Liberty movement.
After squashing the New York Independence movement, the King and Parliament flaunted their victory with the Declaratory Act, essentially rubbing in the colonists’ faces that, "We can do what we want, when we want, for whatever reason we want, and you cannot do anything about it," along with the Townshend Act, yet another tax.
Burgeoning under all these unwanted tyrannies, many colonists became open opponents of Britain. King George watched with shock and anger, in March 5th, 1770, shortly after the election of Lord North as Prime Minister, as Americans, upon reading To the Betrayed Inhabitants of the City of Boston (a Sons of Liberty broadside), seized fifty sleeping British troops garrisoned in Boston, dragged them out of their barracks, impaled them "like flags" upon pikes, and hoisted the corpses at Boston Harbour for all to see. It was known as "The Bostonian Massacre," and it made the English cry out for revenge. It was not long before they would have it.
The so-called "War of the Regulation" (1765-1770), in western North Carolina, was a rebellion of the citizens against the colonial government in protest to the "Intolerable Acts" passed by Parliament. The British knew it could incite unrest in the other areas, especially after The Bostonian Massacre, and immediately brought in professional soldiers to assist Governor William Tyron in crushing the insurgency. At the Battle of Alamance, over three hundred rebels were captured by Redcoats and executed. In retaliation, a mob in New York City, a location under martial law since the Rebellion of ’66, stormed a compound, freeing numerous prisoners and taking hostage five hundred British troops. They then declared that they would execute ten soldiers every day until the Intolerable Acts were repealed. They practiced what they preached: the next day, ten bodies were hoisted on pikes on Wall Street. After ten days, and one hundred executions, a British counter-attack liberated the prisoners and forced the rebels to flee for their lives. The Wall Street Hostage Crisis was over.
From this time forth, North America plummeted into violence and riots. Following the Hostage Crisis, Sam Adams, a leader of the Sons of Liberty, formed the Committee of Correspondence. This heavily-Masonic organization pulled the strings of power in America, much to the disgruntlement of King George. A further black eye for the crown was the newly-formed (1772) Watauga Republic, along the Louisiana border, which was formed by settlers pushing the limits of the Proclamation Line.
Britain responded with the Tea Act. This new act was designed by the East India Company to sell its hugely overpriced tea to the colonists, who would have to pay Townshend Duties, making it even more expensive. The Sons of Liberty, now on the ascension to supreme power over all independence/anti-Britain movements, retaliated with the Boston Tea Party. The Sons of Liberty chapter in Boston, Massachusetts disguised themselves as Indians, complete with tea-stained skin, turbans, scimitars, and explosives, and attacked the ships tied to the docks, massacring the sailors, throwing the tea overboard, and burning the ships. Numerous ships, however, were privateered and taken to an undisclosed location, crewed, repainted, and sent out to sea. This marks the start of the Pirate War (1773-75). British civilian ships were seized, hostages taken, property destroyed, and finally sunk– if they could not be used as yet more pirate vessels. The Royal Navy was then stretched to its full capacity as piracy broke out all over the empire, inspired by the Tea Party.
Parliament had had enough. They quickly passed the Massachusetts Bay and New York Governing Act, which removed all colonial authorities, installed new ones, raised taxes, beefed up occupational troops, and made support of revolt punishable by death. It was followed quickly by the Proclamation Line of 1774, which pushed the Line of 1763 back east even further, and sent in troops to order and monitor settler relocation. While this helped the all-seeing eye of George watch and control more easily for a while, it made the western rural families and towns hate his guts. The Watauga Republic prepared violent resistance against the Line of 1774. Making the matters worse was the Administration of Justice Act of 1774, which essentially allowed local officials to persecute, execute, or exile anyone they wanted and crush uprisings and protests by whatever means necessary, and the Second Quartering Act.
Violence was to reign supreme during the Powder Confiscation of September 1st, 1774, when British general Thomas Gage, military governor of Massachusetts Bay, seized gunpowder supplies and brought them to Boston, where he could keep an eye on it to keep it out of the hands of "the unruly elements of society." Unfortunately, in a violent, brief skirmish, the same Sons of Liberty members who had started the Boston Tea Party stole most all of it and dispersed it across the colony in all manners of hiding spots, making it impossible to retrieve it all again. Furious, Gage cracked down, triggering riots which resulted in the deaths of fifty civilians. The Sons of Liberty quickly took hostages of soldiers stationed on the Proclamation Line and executed five for every one of the fifty civilians killed. More troops were brought in to "teach those d*** colonists a lesson," as King George so nicely put it to Lord North. Shortly after, the colonists, being pushed to their limits, formed the First Continental Assembly, under the firm control of the Sons of Liberty, and met at Carpenter’s Hall, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The Assembly warned King George III that the colonies were being pushed as far as possible, and that the Intolerable Acts should be immediately repealed. The Assembly, consisting of 12 colonies (Georgia was not invited because it was a penal colony), went about forming local chapters of the Sons of Liberty to act as militias and police. Gang brawls between the militias and Redcoats became a common sight, and numerous deaths ensued.
On October 19th, 1774, the HMS Peggy Stewart, a Maryland vessel attempting to bring in more "accursed ETC tea," was burned by the Sons of Liberty in Annapolis. It quickly became known as the Annapolis Tea Party. In December, New Jersey members of the Sons of Liberty, acting upon the direct orders of Sam and Johnny Adams, dressed themselves as Indians, again, complete with turbans, scimitars, and tea-stained skin, burned a massive overland shipment of tea bound for Philadelphia. It became known as the Greenwich Tea Party.
The Peggy Stewart Burns
Finally, it came to a head. On April 19th, 1775, Lieutenant Colonel Francis Smith marched 1000 British regulars to arrest and/or disperse (and confiscate the supplies of) the Massachusetts militia, lead by silversmith Paul Revere, at Concord, which was especially infamous for massacres of Redcoats and the burning of tea. At Concord, the British army faced the Sons of Liberty down the barrels of their muskets. As soon as dragoons moved to arrest the leaders, shots were fired. Within thirty minutes, 100 "Lobsterbacks" had perished. Revere ordered his troops to advance, heads of British soldiers mounted on bayonets. Terrified, the British gave ground, only to be hewn down even more. The casualties’ heads were quickly mounted, and rebel colonists, now covered in blood, gave chase. The entire army routed and Smith was captured during the retreat. Revere had won a huge victory.
Francis Smith and Paul Revere
Simultaneously, in Boston, revolutionary fervor spread like wildfire. Radicals under the command of Samuel Adams stormed the British stronghold in the city and killed all the defenders. Elsewhere in the town, widespread looting and burning was ensuing as the British were evacuating. The Battles of Boston and Concord had ended. The Great Revolution had begun.
Liberty, Brotherhood, Justice
The First Years of the Great Revolution
"And when ‘e gets to ‘eaven, to ol’ Saint Pete ‘e will tell, ‘One more Brit reportin’, mate; I’ve served m’ time in Hell.’ "
-Unknown British Veteran
General McClintock leads the Americans into battle
Following the evacuation of Boston, the Sons of Liberty took complete control of the city. Those who opposed them were too frightened to say so, and Faneuil Hall became the center of the new government. In the following weeks, the Second Continental Assembly was created, and Samuel Adams became the President. Upon his election, the first flag carrying an inherently anti-British meaning was hoisted over Faneuil Hall. It was had green, red, and white stripes in the canton, and a blue field in the corner thirteen white seven-pointed stars encompassing a white Masonic Compass-and-Square. This new design, and variations of it, became extremely popular, and Harry Lee hoisted one in Philadelphia. However, many still resisted the violence of the Sons, and so Benedict Arnold, from Connecticut, and Thomas Jefferson, from Virginia, created the Fraternity of Freedom, a moderate patriot group that cooperated with the Sons, but tried to deter the violence.
Once again, Georgia was not invited to the Assembly. This snub triggered even more pro-British sentiment within the Southern colony. However, once the Sons of Liberty went south with bands of green-white-red armband-wearing thugs to "promote the Cause," Georgia quickly fell in line with the Radicals. When, in January of ’76, the British army arrived at Savannah to enforce their rule, Georgian general Lachlan McIntosh fought them off with heavy casualties. General McIntosh, together with General Archibald Bulloch, created the Georgia Council of Public Safety, a provisional government. Soon, Bulloch became the de facto dictator, and McIntosh became head of the army. The history of the Georgia Republic had just begun.
As Adams, Bulloch, and the others occupied headlines, Bostonian General Henry Knox was marching his feeble force through unimaginable winter weather to Boston, bringing with him 60 cannons brought all the way from Fort Ticonderoga. It took 54 days, and it became known as the Rescue of Boston. Thanks to his back-breaking effort and spunk, Boston was able to fight off a massive British attack in February of ’76.
It was during these first few months of 1777 that a new figure appeared on the political horizon, a man with an epic destiny. His name was Thomas Paine, and he would change the world forever. On January 10th, the young English immigrant to America released Plain Truth, a new book preaching the destruction of the British, execution of the Tories, and full and total independence.
"These are the times that try Patriots’ souls. Until the Tories are exterminated the continent will feel itself like a man who continues putting off some unpleasant business from day to day, yet knows it must be done, hates to set about it, wishes it over, and is continually haunted with the thoughts of its necessity."
"If we have to send one million British soldiers, or even George himself, straight to Hell to win our independence, then send them we should and shall."
"The Sons of Liberty warm the hearts of the continent with their quest for Liberty, Brotherhood, and Justice."
"In our search for the blasphemous Tories, we should base our tactics on Numbers 31: ‘And they slew all the males.’ "
This pumped radicalism to new heights, and Plain Truth was printed by the hundreds of thousands. It became standard issue for all Continental Army troopers, and if they could not read, they were to have someone read it to them. A huge increase in the number of volunteers, and in Tories becoming Patriots was likely a product of civilian readings. Paine was on the political ascent as "The Thinking Man’s Rebel," and it would be a long time before he started to descend.
Upon the huge surge in patriotism, New England’s armies doubled and resulted in the Liberation of the Bahamas in March. The amphibious invasion pummeled the British garrison there and set up a Council of Public Safety. When copies of Plain Truth were passed out, all of Nassau draped green, white, and red banners. In a month, the Caribbean sank into civil war and revolt, which the British Royal Navy, busy combating the Second Rise of Piracy, was unable to cork. Prices for sugar in Britain soared, and extensive smuggling operations began, swelling the Continental coffers. A Caribbean native, General Alexander Hamilton, was placed in charge of conducting Caribbean military operations. A member of the Fraternity, Hamilton was a moderate, but he got the job done. In July, he had sent copies of Plain Truth as far as British and Spanish possessions in South America. A failed uprising in Colombia got so far as to have established a Council of Safety before the Spanish came in and wiped them out.
On June 4th, 1776, the Second Assembly signed and approved a unanimous Declaration of Autonomy, severing all chances for any kind of repatriation under the British crown. It was war, total and unceasing, until one side was beaten.
Shortly after the Declaration, a new mercenary force arrived from Europe. 5,000 Poles, French, Russians, and Germans, and at their head was 56 year-old ex-Jacobite, William "Claymore" McClintock, also known as "Bloodie Billie." The Scot had fought in the Rising of ’45 under Bonnie Prince Charlie, where he earned his nick-name following the medieval butchering of fifty British soldiers with his claymore, a huge broadsword he kept with him at all times. His troops were at the front of the American phalanx at the Battle of Long Island, where, under his and Israel Putnam’s inspired leadership, the Continentals heavily defeated both Howe and Cornwallis. A series of forced retreats following suicide assaults by the British eventually forced them to evacuate Long Island to the British.
McClintock had proven himself; he was quickly chosen by the Assembly as Commander-in-Chief of their joint forces. He foiled Howe again at the decisive Battle of Morningside Heights, which sent Howe’s forces scurrying in disarray thanks to a badly-organized retreat. This enabled American snipers to have field days, and dead soldiers mounted on pikes on the sides of the roads were common sights for the Redcoats. Numerous groups of German and Russian mercenaries fled after witnessing the brutal backwoods campaign.
As the British army ran south to New Jersey, Benedict Arnold, newly arrived from roaring victories in Quebec and New York (where he fought for the Green Mountain Republic) gave chase with several thousand volunteers. They pestered the British unceasingly, Arnold stating that "George’s army shall die of a thousand mosquito bites."
Howe decided to make a stand in New Jersey. Things were about to get nasty.
Trial by Fire
Massacres and Murder
Friedrich Adolf Riedesel, Freiherr zu Eisenbach
After a brutal, vicious campaign in New Jersey, the Empire decided to strike back at last. The Continentals were forced to flee Fort Ticonderoga when a large Brunswicker army under Friedrich Adolf Riedesel, Freiherr zu Eisenbach was on the assault from Canada. It was the year 1777, and it would make or break the Revolution. Upon being reinforced by the Canadians at Ticonderoga(a name Riedesel was incapable of pronouncing, according to aides), the Brunswick army invaded New York, pounding back the Revolutionary forces there, until McClintock was left alone to hold New York City. Howe, marching to assist the Germans, immediately left New Jersey, stationing only a minimal garrison. Within a week, the garrison had been overthrown completely and impaled in the streets. Howe knew he had to make his attack on McClintock as soon as possible or Ticonderoga would be the only position King George would have to launch decent incursions onto "American" soil. That would not do at all. The British made such magnificent haste and marched so speedily to New York City that they were quite starved and exhausted by the time they arrived. Riedesel, under pressure from Vermont’s troops, decided to assault the city gates when news of General Howe’s arrival reached him. This mistake would cost the British greatly. At the disastrous First Siege of NYC (July 7th), Riedesel’s Germans valiantly attacked McClintock’s fortifications, and, though at great cost, successfully pushed Continental troops from the outer ring of trenches and defenses. Riedesel took control of these areas and carried on an urban battle with the Revolutionaries. At this moment, the Brunswicker noble could have lashed out and sent the Americans packing, likely making victory in the entire conflict inevitable; he certainly had enough troops, and time was on his side. However, he instead elected to wait for Howe to bring up "fresh" troops. It was a disaster. Orders and messages between Howe and Riedesel, informing the latter that the British were not capable of fighting properly in their current state, had been lost and not delivered. In a confused panic, the Brunswickers started to lose morale, and a rumor swept through the ranks that Riedesel had been killed by a sniper. They gave ground. Before the day was over, German troops were fleeing in waves, behaving like "Medieval rabble." Seeing the fate befalling the assault, a British cavalry officer, his name lost to history, came up with the brilliant idea of sending his cavalry squadron at the American dogs. They promptly collided with the retreating Germans. What broke the camel’s back were the uniforms of the cavalry. Blue. The distraught Brunswickers opened fire, in turn causing the cavalry to become confused and counter attack. For eight deadly minutes the bloodletting continued until officers finally stopped the friendly fire. Thoroughly defeated, the British retreated far from the city, faces red with humiliation.
Low on supplies and badly in need of a morale-boosting victory, Howe picked fights with small rebel detachments and looted the corpses. Riedesel insisted on taking Philadelphia, which was now in the hands of Harry Lee, one of the lesser American generals. Desperate, Howe agreed. From then until October, the British-Hessian army crashed full-tilt into Pennsylvania, decisively defeating Lee at the Battle of Philadelphia. Little did they know Lee was smarter than they thought, and that he had prepared a huge underground movement for them. Philadelphia was about to go to Hell in a handbasket. Impaling poles were sharpened.
In the north, General Burgoyne was losing badly to McClintock. Thousands were dying. The Green Mountain Republic was resisting him with all they had, and McClintock was chomping up from the south. Finally, held up in Fort Ticonderoga, Burgoyne made his last stand. He was wiped off the face of the planet. McClintock had hoisted the black flag before the battle had begun, indicating no mercy would be given. No mercy was given, not even to Burgoyne, as he was seized and impaled from the anus to the throat. Ticonderoga was bathed in blood.
"Gentleman Johnny" Burgoyne, victim of the Ticonderoga Massacre
The horrific disasters were furthering Britain’s hatred of the war even more. By itself, it simply could not hold down the radicals. In early 1780, the first Asian troops arrived. The war was about to get even more complicated.
Birds of a Feather
The Alliance of the Monarchies
Anglo-Spanish troops storm Georgian beach defenses (1780)
Georgia’s relations to Spain had been bad before the Revolution, especially over the highly-disputed areas of northern Florida. When Georgian troops crossed the border in January of 1780 to evade capture by British soldiers, Spain warned Georgian dictator Lachlan McIntosh to get his men out. Riots triggered by propaganda spread by the Georgians on their march broke out in early February. After rioters stormed a government building in St. Augustine, Spain blamed the Georgians. War was declared and the Alliance of the Monarchies was formed between Britain, Spain, Prussia, several German states, and Portugal. It was declared by King George III that, "The Monarchies must all hang together, or else we shall surely all hang separately." The American ideology was seen as infectious, and kings worried about unrest breaking out in their own colonies and even their own countries. France decided not to support the Alliance, as it was not willing to form an agreement with Prussia or Britain at any cost. It was not extremely friendly with the Americans, but extensive smuggling operations were carried out to arm the rebels to avenge the French territorial losses of the Seven Years War.
Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid
Bernardo de Galvez y Madrid, the 5th governor of Spanish Louisiana, took control of the Army of New Spain upon Spain’s entrance into the Alliance. Militias were raised from New Orleans to Canada, Spanish troops were crossing the Atlantic, and Georgia was inundated with attacks.
In Prussia and the Holy Roman Empire, thousands of soldiers were being transported to the New World. While the soldiers cared little for the conflict, the Germanic leaders had formed a blood pact to help George III, who was also Prince-elector of Hannover, crush the American anti-monarchists and usurpers. General Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben commanded the first Prussian army to land, a small token force of 5,000. This brigade crashed its way through the Georgian defenses and humiliated General McIntosh in several pitched battles. Things were looking grim for the Rebellion.
Georgian, Wataugan, and Colonial leaders met in secret at Lexington, Virginia in mid-1780 to plan a new strategy. It was decided that Alexander Hamilton should leave the Bahamas before he was trapped and sail for South America. Hamilton did as ordered and was about to be the originator of guerrilla warfare.
In early August, 1780, Hamilton and 1,000 Patriots landed in Colombia with the intent of spreading the "Revolucion." Immediately, the Spanish authorities closed in for the kill, only to have him evade capture and kill 500 Spanish soldiers. Hamilton marched into the jungles, where he preached rebellion to the villages of New Spain. In a month, rebellion was sweeping the continent as copies of the banned Plain Truth miraculously appeared by the thousands. Hamilton had several disciples that he was grooming, including a young Colombian named Jose Fernandez. Fernandez soon found himself a general, and he organized a small army to begin the Liberation of Gran Colombia. It was a wildly popular uprising, and it spread into other areas. Just as planned, the Spanish suddenly withdrew to Louisiana and Georgia regained some strength. The Spanish government tried to brutally suppress the rebellion in South America, but it was too late. Soon Plain Truth became all the rage in Brazil, and the ancient and decrepit Portuguese empire was totally inept at deterring revolt. Violence rocked the entire New World. In the Spanish Tejas region, just below Louisiana, the lower classes revolted and set up the Tejas Republic. Spain was regretting its decision to enter the war. By the end of 1780, Georgia was meeting and defeating the feeble Spanish army in the field and cutting away at morale in the homeland. In Madrid, the people said the royals were destroying the Spanish Empire. The final straw was the New Orleans Uprising, during which the entire Spanish garrison of the key strategic city was massacred.
All of New Spain and New Portugal was on fire, literally and figuratively. Maria I Francisca of Portugal withdrew from the Alliance and sent all troops to Brazil to try to crush the uprising. As Charles III of Spain tried to still support George III, he was losing his territories and men. Mass executions in New Orleans of rebels in retaliation for the Uprising made things even worse, and in February 1781, Spanish rule in the New Orleans area was finally toppled and a republic proclaimed.
Finally, in May of 1781, Spain withdrew from the Alliance. The Alliance was finished and failed. One of the main reasons was the fact that Czarina Catherine was shipping arms and munitions to the Americans. Thomas Jefferson himself was, from 1780-82, the Continental ambassador to the Russian Imperial court, where he slowly-but-steadily gained the Czarina’s ear. Russia became increasingly hostile to Great Britain, along with France. If France would come to the rescue of the Americans, and Russia attacked Prussia, then the Revolution would succeed.
Urah! Urah! Urah!
Russia and France Enter the War
Russian troops of the American Revolution
It was time for payback. The Seven Years’ War had resulted in the victory of Britain, Portugal, Hannover, and Prussia over France, Russia, the Holy Roman Empire, Mughal Empire, and Spain. Now, in 1781, seeing a chance to avenge their losses, Russia, France, and the Holy Roman Empire declared war on Britain. Britain was caught so off-guard that France actually was successful in the Thames Raid, when several French warships sailed up the river and blasted London before promptly returning to Normandy.
Prussia, under the elderly Frederick II, engaged the Russian army five times before a peace was negotiated. Prussia’s alliance with Britain was for all practical purposes dissolved. This left only Britain and Hannover to fight on.
In early 1782, McClintock was about to be reenforced by French and Russian troops in New York. Britain was about to launch a huge assault from Canada into New York. The Green Mountain Republic was finally crumbling, and New York City was about to come under siege once again. On February 5th, 1782, Britain began bombardment of New York City. The Second Siege had begun. McClintock, desperate for new troops, found a world of relief as the French and Russian navies engaged the British fleet in New York Harbor. Howe, commander of the British and Hessian forces, found himself trapped with no where to go. Faced with no other option, Howe stormed the city. With unbelievable ferocity, the British defeated the Americans and left mounds of stinking corpses laying in pools of blood in the streets. As McClintock evacuated, however, the British fleet was destroyed. On February 10th, the Franco-Russian army landed and began a counter-siege. Howe was trapped, and the French controlled the seas. On the 11th, a Russian force stormed the walls and took over a portion of the city before being pushed back. Finally, after fighting and losing so many soldiers his position was unsustainable, Howe surrendered. McClintock made a triumphal procession back into the city.
British and American troops clash in the streets of NYC; note the green-white-red tricolor banner
General McClintock (front and center), marches triumphantly into New York City under a Sons of Liberty tricolor and holding General Howe’s surrendered sword
Britain was not about to admit defeat. In the south, George was using military access agreed upon with Spain to march down from Canada, through Louisiana, and down to New Orleans, where the nascent republic was crushed by General Banastre Tarleton. Using it as momentum, he steamed ahead into Georgia, where he defeated two rebel armies. Finally, McIntosh handed "Bloody Ban" defeat at the Battle of Johnson’s Swamp, near the Florida border, where Georgian sharpshooters massacred the bogged-down British army in a manner akin to Braddock’s Defeat. Tarleton was severely wounded when his wet flintlock pistol blew up in his hand, and was carried away on a stretcher. He died two hours later when his army was "regrouping."
Tarleton’s death was, for all basic purposes, the death blow to the British cause. It had been far too costly and bloody, and on June 13th, 1782, Britain informally recognized American Independence.
"Of Alexander, of Caesar, of Paine!"
-Third Triumvir Aaron Burr, January 10th, 1782
General Henry Knox and Richmond Deputy of Public Safety James Monroe lead the October assault upon the Richmond capitol building
After the unofficial peace began, more thought was given about governments for the new independent nations. Georgia remained essentially the same in a Bulloch "loving dictatorship." Watauga elected to follow a fairly free, republican style. The Green Mountain Republic, with its low population and high casualties during the war, was a dictatorship under Allen, but was actually fairly open and free. The other states, however, chose something else entirely.
During the war, the Continental Assemblies were the leadership of the colonies. But in actuality, local Councils of Public Safety, ruled by Deputies of Public Safety, ruled with iron fists. After the war, the ramshackle group of regions needed a solid government to prevent collapse. So, in January of 1783, a vote was taken in the Continental Assembly as to which form of government should be adopted. With delusions of Roman Republican grandeur, the voters chose a triumvirate. On January 10th of the same year, Thomas Paine was elected First Triumvir of the American Republic. Aaron Burr was elected as Second Triumvir of the Republic. Finally, Thomas Jefferson was elected Third Triumvir of the Republic. The three men effectively took on the Assembly’s duties upon being sworn in. The Oath of Office was as follows:
"I, (name), do solemnly swear upon my blood and my sacred honor that I will faithfully execute the Office of Triumvir of the Republic, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend our glorious enlightened nation at whatever cost."
This of course meant dictatorship.
Paine (top right), Burr (top left), and Jefferson (bottom)
Thomas Paine dominated, and he and his pawn Burr helped silence Jefferson. The first few days in office saw the withdrawal of the Kaintuck Territory, Virginia, and the Carolinas from the new nation, who did not trust the new system. They in turn became the Kaintuck Republic, the Commonwealth of Virginia, Democracy of South Carolina, and the Republic of North Carolina.
The use of military force was considered to bring the small countries back into the fold. General McClintock was appointed Commander-in-Chief, but he was disillusioned by the new government. Nevertheless, he fulfilled his duty.
Virginia was the country to look out for. It would have the ability later to go against and possibly beat New England. This would not do at all. So, as a solution, rebellion was stirred up in Richmond and several regiments sent in to wreak havoc. In October, 1783, the Richmond Deputy of Public Safety, James Monroe, who had served as an aide to General McClintock during the war, conspired with the Bostonian General Henry Knox to overthrow the Virginian government. In a bloody assault, the Virginian capitol building was stormed and the garrison of elite foot guards massacred. The anti-Triumvirate government officials were arrested and exiled. Virginia rejoined the Union.
Following the Virginian coup, a peace treaty between Britain and all its former colonies was drawn up in Brussels. Now, the new countries could focus on each other and the unfolding New Spain crisis.
The Reign of Horror
Woodcut of the 1784 impalement of Doctor Benjamin Rush, an outspoken opponent of slavery and, ironically, capital punishment
An unusually lucky group of Loyalists land in British Canada to escape almost certain execution
Etching showing the lynching and killing of Virginian nationalist George Washington by the Sons of Liberty; he was hoisted on a Liberty Tree and beaten senseless like a party game before William Franklin(shown waving fist in foreground) himself delivered the killing blow
William Franklin, (son of Seven Years’ War hero General Benjamin Franklin, who was killed in 1759 at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham ) was the inventor and leader of the "Republican Death Brigades"
Major Jacques Louis David, famous American radical and musician; note the sabre wound on the right side of his face, a scar he acquired fighting under Hamilton in Central America and Mexico
Benjamin Rush was a doctor and veteran of the Great Revolution. He was a mild-mannered bespectacled chap who behaved himself, was anti-slavery, and anti-capital punishment. It’s ironic then, that on January 8th, 1784, he was impaled on a steak, starting off the Reign of Horror with a bang.
It all started when William Franklin, son of legendary Seven Years’ War general Benjamin Franklin, approached the Triumvirs with a plan, a plan that would "hold the Republic together." America needed enemies, he said, and those enemies should be killed. Thomas Jefferson kept his mouth shut as Paine and Burr applauded. Paine declared Franklin "a hero of the Republic." These enemies needed to be hunted down and executed, it was agreed. The list included "Tories, monarchists, former Hessian and British soldiers who deserted during the war, spies, saboteurs, and general enemies of the state." This unofficially included abolitionists and those not gung-ho on the Triumvirate.
Following the execution of Rush, the next man to be seized was plantation owner, businessman, and Virginian nationalist George Washington. On January 12th, during a business trip to Philadelphia to make an agriculture deal with Midwest Territory rancher James Madison, a mob of fifty "large, burly men wearing green-red-white armbands, lead by the noble patriot William Franklin," assaulted, lynched, and hoisted Washington by the waist on a Liberty Pole in front of a massive crowd. They then commenced to "whupping the tar out out of the Virginian rapscallion." It happened to be William Franklin’s birthday that day, and as Washington hanged limply seven feet in the air, Franklin was given the honor of smiting him. With a large board, Franklin smacked Washington in the head, breaking his neck. Franklin was drunk during this time, and it was said it took multiple whacks and misses to actually kill Washington. This of course has been passed down to today in the form of washingtons–paper mache and cardboard boxes of various shapes and sizes suspended in the air and filled with candy on one’s birthday to be struck with a bat or club, often done while wearing a blindfold to replicate Franklin’s "blind drunkenness."
Raising Washington’s Death Pole
Following the two executions, hysteria swept the Republic. Neighbor turned against neighbor, sibling against sibling, friend against friend, all to protect the Republic from its mortal enemies. Chaos swept the nation as the Reign of Horror took hold. Thousands of closet Tories fled the country, most fleeing to Canada. However, on the way there, many were ambushed by Republican troops, the Sons of Liberty, and their Native American allies (see first illustration of timeline on pg. 1). The ones who made it to Canada were welcomed with open arms, many joining the British army, hoping for a chance at revenge sometime in the future.
The radicalism did not stop at the Republic border; in 1785, Alexander Hamilton, still campaigning in New Spain, received a new officer: French immigrant Major Jacques Louis David. Officially there to assist Hamilton, his real purpose was to spy on him and help enforce the radical new methods of search and destroy. Though America was not officially at war with Spain, it did not stop the Republicans from killing Spanish soldiers and officials. Hamilton and David soon found themselves leaving South America behind, half in firm control of Republicans. Soon, Mexico was just as violent. Revolution had been attempted, inspired by Tejas, but Hamilton’s entrance changed everything. By late 1786, the Republics of Yucatan and Rio Grande had been established with pro-American Republic leaders. Georgia-supporting Tejas disliked this immensely.
Cut off from most all real contact with the mother country, Louisiana revolted, finally throwing off Spanish rule and forming the Federated Republic of Louisiana, consisting of the regions of New Orleans, North Missouri, South Missouri, Montainia, Cimarron, Minnesquotah, Daquotah, Colorado, Oklowma, and Akansea. It’s capital was the capital of New Orleans: New Orleans City, site of the former bloodily-created Republic of New Orleans. Immediately, George Walton was elected Federal President. A native Virginian who had left his home region to spread the Revolution, Walton was best friends with Georgia’s commander-in-chief Lachlan McIntosh and an acquaintance of President Bulloch. Because of this, Louisiana and Georgia signed the Pact of Gulfport in 1787, forging a firm bond between the American Republic’s greatest rivals. The Triumvirate started conscripting men, young and old, into the armed forces in case the "Southron Alliance" would try to attack the Republic. Louisiana and Georgia instead decided to just stand by and watch what they thought be an epic internal collapse of the north.
Flag of the Federated Republic of Louisiana
Flag of the Yucatan Republic
Flag of the Republic of the Rio Grande
Flag of the Democracy of South Carolina
Flag of the former Republic of New Orleans
Flag of the Georgia Republican Guards
Flag of the North Carolina Republic
The original flag hoisted over Boston by the Sons of Liberty at the beginning of the Great Revolution, currently being preserved by the Royal American Military Museum
Back in the American Republic, Samuel Adams, the original spearhead of the Revolution, had long ago lost his thunder to the more exciting, more radical Paine. Already in ill health and expecting to be arrested, he died of an opium overdose at the age of 65. He was buried following an honorary funeral in Freedom Square, in front of Faneuil Hall.
Paul Revere, the first American to lead troops into battle against British forces, was seized under charges of smuggling slaves to freedom, writing and drawing propaganda against the duly-elected Triumvirs, and advocating genocide, none of which was true, but the last was more then a little ironic. He was impaled in 1788, at the age of 55, "cutting" a promising career short.
An new generation of Americans raised during and after the Great Revolution was about to enter politics and the officer corps. One of this new generation was a young man named Andrew Franklin Jackson. History would never be the same.